60秒 帝国重建——史上最成功的广告之一:APPLE Think different

 

编译:Vivian

 

This is the story of one of the most successful campaigns in the history of advertising. It’s the story of Apple’s ‘Think different’ campaign. We are not only talking about an original idea or a beautiful ad, the campaign actually worked, and how… During the 90’s Apple was in a crisis, and with only one campaign they have managed to climb out of this slump. Steve Jobs once said: “It only took 15 . . . 30 . . . maybe 60 seconds to re-establish Apple’s counter-culture image that it had lost during the 90s”.

苹果的“Think different”是史上最成功的广告之一。这并不仅仅因为它是一个精彩的创意或一支漂亮的广告,关键是,它真的起作用……90年代,苹果陷入危机,而一次广告运动就让他们得以翻身。史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)曾说过:“我们只用了15——30——或者60秒,就重建了苹果曾在90年代丢失了的反传统形象。”

Here you can see the television ad, but make sure you click continue to read the entire story and to see the amazing print campaign.

以下就是这支电视广告,但请看完完整的背后故事以及那些精彩的印刷广告。

 

背景简介:《1984》是乔治奥韦尔在1948年所写的关于极端法西斯主意的小说. 它描述了想象的未来,主题是1984年已经没有个人自由,所有的人都生活在政府的完全控制下。他们永远受到监督和欺骗,以使局面看起来令人敬畏。这个广告暗示苹果将打破这种单调枯燥生活,使得1984年不会成为小说《1984》....如果...这行得通的话.....

在乔治奥威尔的小说《1984》中,人们的精神被“老大哥”彻底控制。而1984年的计算机产业也面临着同样的局面。观众们都明白,那个禁锢着用户思想的“老大哥”指的是苹果的竞争对手IBM。时任Chiat\Day 广告公司创意总监的李克洛曾经回忆道:“这支广告解释了苹果公司的哲学和目标,那就是平民百姓——而非政府和大公司——才拥有掌管科技的权利。”

但当史蒂夫乔布斯第一次得意洋洋地在董事会里展示“1984”广告样片的时候,这个“杰作”却把到场嘉宾们吓得面如土色。毕竟,谁也没见过这种故作神秘、卖弄意识形态的产品广告。更可怕的是,在这个电子产品的广告中竟然看不到产品的影子。除了史蒂夫乔布斯、史蒂夫沃兹尼亚克和麦克马库拉这三个联合创始人,所有人都面面相觑,痛苦地表示这是“历史上最糟糕的电视广告”。
 
广告公司没有办法,他们已经买了超级碗(美国第一大体育盛会,职业橄榄球的总决赛)中场90秒的广告时间,很贵,只能往外卖,但是,一直到很晚,也只卖出了30s,还剩60s广告时间在手中,那么这个广告公司也够光棍,对自己的创意充满了无穷的信任,在没有征得苹果同意的情况下,把90s版本剪裁为60s,给播出来了,然后的事情大家都知道了,这个广告获奖无数,有效传播数字惊人,一半美国人看过这个广告,很多人花钱到电影院看这个广告。
 
所有的顾虑在广告播出之后烟消云散。正在转播“超级碗”的哥伦比亚广播公司被潮水般涌入的热线电话弄得措手不及。人们的问题只有一个:“那到底是个什么玩意儿?”不管是爱是恨,“1984”引发了美国全境的大讨论。三大电视网和50多家地方电视台播出了关于这支广告的新闻,一遍又一遍地免费重播整个片段,数百家纸媒进行了跟进报道。

根据AC尼尔森的调查数据,全美50%的男性和46.4%的女性看到了“1984”广告。免费的自发传播为苹果节省了至少500万美元的广告费用。

苹果公司在1984年展开的广告大战并没有就此终结,他们必须在广告饕餮之后开始解释“到底什么是麦金托什(Macintosh)电脑”。紧随“超级碗”大赛的热潮和麦金托什的正式亮相,苹果公司又趁势推出了耗资1500万美元、历时100天的“广告闪电战”。

在当年的美国《新闻周刊》总统竞选特刊中,苹果公司花费250万美元买下了40页的广告位,详尽解释了麦金托什电脑的方方面面。当时,苹果公司首席执行官约翰斯卡利拿着那期杂志感慨:“很难说,这到底是一份植入了苹果广告的《新闻周刊》,还是一本夹着《新闻周刊》的苹果宣传册。”

 

 

 

顺便说一句,这个广告的导演是《异形》和《角斗士》的导演。 这个片子被认为拍出了1984的神髓,远超两部名为1984的影片。附上字幕:

 

Subtitle:
 
My friends,each of you is a single cell in the great body of the State。 And today,that great body has purged itself of parasites。 We have triumphed over the unprincipled dissemination of facts。 The thugs and wreckers have been cast out。 And the poisonous weeds of disinformation have been consigned to the dustbin of history。 Let each and every cell rejoice!
 
For today we celebrate the first,glorious anniversary of the Information Purification Directive! We have created,for the first time in all history,a garden of pure ideology,where each worker may bloom secure from the pests of contradictory and confusing truths。 Our Unification of Thought is a more powerful weapon than any fleet or army on Earth! We are one people。 With one will。 One resolve。 One cause。 Our enemies shall talk themselves to death。 And we will bury them with their own confusion! We shall prevail!
 
 
中文字幕
 
亲爱的观众朋友们,全国各族人民及海外侨胞,每一位同胞都是我们伟大的祖国母亲的一个细胞,一个组成部分。 今天,我们伟大的祖国母亲已经铲除了它身上的寄生虫和毒瘤,我们已经战胜了不负责任的新闻报导和传播,一小撮反动势力和别有用心份子已经被驱逐,  不老实的毒草已经被扔进历史的垃圾箱,每个老百姓都欢心鼓舞,(由于后面的故事,前面的被cut了)
今天,我们隆重开会庆祝取得巨大成就的,人类历史上第一个信息净化制度胜利实施一周年,我们史无前例的提前竣工了,全世界第一个纯洁的正确思想观念大花园,每一个劳动者,从现实的冲突,矛盾和困惑中解脱出来,迸发出巨大的热情。
统一思想是我们最重要的精神武器,比任何舰队或军队都更有力,我们是一个人,一个意识,一个动机,一个决定。
敌人将会在争吵中灭亡。 我们将用它们的内乱埋葬它们,我们必胜。

 

  原版的“1984”广告(QuickTime格式)
  http://www.theapplecollection.com/Collection/AppleMovies/movies2.html

  改版的“1984-2004”广告(QuickTime格式)
  http://www.apple.com/hardware/ads/1984/

  乔治·欧威尔的小说《1984》(英文)
  http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/1984/

 

 

History
历史

In 1977 Steve Jobs founded Apple together with Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne and Mike Markkula. In 1985 Jobs resigned from Apple after losing a struggle with the board of directors. From that point on John Sculley, the CEO of Apple, made significant changes to the marketing strategy. He was not fond of the legendary 1984ad. But Jobs, Bill Campbell, Steve Wozniak, and Lee Clow (the creative director at Chiat/Day) convinced him to air it anyway and it became one of the most popular TV commercials in history. In 1985 Apple was not so lucky with it’s Lemmingsad, it was a complete flop. This led to the termination of the contract with Chiat/Day, which had handled Apple’s PR for its entire history.
1977年,史蒂夫·乔布斯与史蒂夫·沃兹(Steve Wozniak)、罗纳德·韦恩(Ronald Wayne)、迈克·马库拉(Mike Markkula)共同创立了苹果公司。1985年,在与董事会的斗争失败后,乔布斯辞职离开苹果。自那时起,苹果CEO约翰·史考利(John Sculley)在市场策略上做了显著的改变。他不喜欢传奇式的“1984”广告,但乔布斯、比尔·坎贝尔(Bill Campbell)、史蒂夫·沃兹和李·克劳(Lee Clow ,TBWA全球首席创意官兼主席)说服了他,而这支广告也成为史上最风靡的电视广告之一。苹果1985年的“疯狂旅鼠”广告则没有这么幸运,堪称完败。这也导致了苹果与TBWA Chiat/Day的合约中止,此前,苹果的所有公关由其负责。

 

From that point on Apple focussed on more conventionalads. Maybe this was the cause (maybe not) of the deterioration of Apple’s image. By that time Apple had lost hundreds of millions and cut thousands of jobs. Steve Jobs was disgusted by this and slowly regained control of the company. One of his top priorities was a renewal of Apple’s image. Lee Clow and his team from TBWA Chiat/Day said that Apple should be aligned with the creativity of personalities and people making an impact on the twentieth century. They presented a new slogan and for Apple’s ads: Think Different (perhaps a reference to IBM’s famous “THINK” slogan).
从此苹果将重心放在更为传统的广告,这也许是苹果形象恶化的原因——当然也可能不是。其时苹果损失已达数亿,并且裁减了数千职位。乔布斯对此感到厌烦,并慢慢重掌公司。他将苹果形象的更新视为重中之重。TBWA Chiat/Day的李·克劳及他的团队认为,苹果应该与人的创造性、影响20世纪的重要人物“结盟”。他们为苹果提出了一句新的广告口号:Think Different。(这可能与IBM著名的广告口号“THINK”相关。)


Jobs gave the group 17 days after approval to complete the entire campaign. That included the television commercial and billboards. A similar campaign for another client would have taken much longer just to get rights to the images. But Jobs pulled some strings to get usage rights from celebrities including Joan Baez (Jobs’ ex-girlfriend) and Yoko Ono (once a neighbour). If Clow had approached these people, he would be another adman. When Jobs called, he was a friend.
 
口号通过后,乔布斯给了这支团队17天去完成整个广告的制作,包括电视广告和广告牌。一般来说,为其他客户制作类似的广告,这点时间连获得这些肖像的使用权都远远不够。但乔布斯通过运用一些关系,从琼·贝兹(Joan Baez,乔布斯前女友)、大野洋子(乔布斯以前的邻居)等名人处得到使用权。如果克劳去接近这些人,对她们而言,他只是“又一个”广告人。当乔布斯致电时,他是她们的朋友。


It all begun with the television commercial, which first aired on Sept. 28 1997, followed by the print ads, billboards and posters. In 1998 the television spot won the second annual primetime Emmy Award for best commercial from the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS). The ad also won a Belding, a Silver Lion at Cannes. The long-term campaign won an Effie award for marketing effectiveness.

这次广告运动的头炮由1997年9月28日首播的电视广告打响,随之而来的是印刷广告、广告牌及招贴。1998年,这支电视广告赢得了电视电影学会(ATAS)授予的第二届年度黄金时段艾美奖之最佳广告奖,以及贝尔丁奖及戛纳银狮奖。较长版本的广告则因其营销效果获得艾菲奖。

 

 

The Campaign

广告运动

The campaign consists of two main parts, there is a television commercial and a print campaign.
此次广告运动包含两个主体部分:电视广告和印刷广告。
 

The television commercial features black and white video footage of significant historical people of the past, including (in order) Albert Einstein, Bob Dylan, Martin Luther King, Jr.,Richard Branson, John Lennon (with Yoko Ono), R. Buckminster Fuller, Thomas Edison, Muhammad Ali, Ted Turner, Maria Callas, Mahatma Gandhi, Amelia Earhart, Alfred Hitchcock, Martha Graham, Jim Henson (with Kermit the Frog), Frank Lloyd Wright and Pablo Picasso. The commercial ends with an image of a young girl, Shaan Sahota, opening her closed eyes, as if to see the possibilities before her.

电视广告对过去的著名历史人物进行了黑白特写,依次包括爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein), 鲍勃·迪伦(Bob Dylan), 马丁路德金(Martin Luther King, Jr.), 理查德·布兰森(Richard Branson), 约翰·列侬(John Lennon)及大野洋子, 富勒(R. Buckminster Fuller), 爱迪生(Thomas Edison),阿里(Muhammad Ali), 特德·特纳(Ted Turner), 玛丽亚·卡拉斯(Maria Callas), 甘地(Mahatma Gandhi), 艾米莉亚·埃尔哈特(Amelia Earhart),希区柯克(Alfred Hitchcock), 玛莎·葛兰姆(Martha Graham), 吉姆·汉森(Jim Henson)与青蛙柯密特(Kermit the Frog), 弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)及毕加索(Pablo Picasso)。广告片以一个年轻女孩Shaan Sahota睁开眼睛为结尾,似乎她看到了未来的各种可能。

The text of the campaign is narrated by the American actor Richard Dreyfuss. Rumours say that Steve Jobs wrote the original text, for this spot it’s been changed a little.

广告文本由美国演员理查德·德莱弗斯(Richard Dreyfuss)讲述。坊间传说脚本的初稿由乔布斯写作而成,在实际拍摄中略有变动。

Text: Here’s to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently. They’re not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo. You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. About the only thing you can’t do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward. And while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius. Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do.

文本:献给疯狂的人、不合时宜的人、叛逆者及麻烦制造者。他们不喜欢规则。他们不尊重现状。你可以响应他们或否定他们,可以颂扬他们抑或诋毁他们,而你唯一不能做的是忽视他们,因为他们改变事物,他们推动人类前进。当有些人把他们视为疯子时,我们看到的是天才。因为疯狂到认为他们可以改变世界的人,就是真正改变世界的人。

 

Above you could see the 1 minute version of the television ad. But there has also been a 30 second version. It used many of the people above, but closed with Jerry Seinfeld, instead of the young girl. This commercial aired only once, during the series finale of Seinfeld.

以上是一分钟版本的电视广告,其实还另有30秒的版本。30秒版本的广告运用了上述广告中的许多人物,但改成以杰瑞·宋飞(Jerry Seinfeld)而非那个年轻女孩为结尾。该版广告只在系列剧《宋飞传》大结局时播放了一次。

The print campaign was much more elaborate than the television commercial. Over the years there have been dozens of different personalities on the posters. In the end it has become difficult to say which images are original, and which are fake. Below you can find 30 different posters from the Think different campaign which I believe are originals (please correct me if I’m wrong). After the first campaign, Apple started sending complimentary posters to public schools across the nation featuring different celebrities (including Pablo Picasso, Jane Goodall, and Ron Howard) to hang in classrooms. The complete packets now sell for hundreds of dollars on some websites.
印刷广告较电视广告更为复杂。这些年来,海报上已经出现了数十个不同的人物形象,最后已经很难讲清哪个形象是原始的,哪个是仿造的。接下来你可以看到30个不同的、我认为确实来自Think different广告运动的海报(如有错误请即指正)。第一次广告运动后,苹果开始向全国的公立学校赠送不同的人物广告海报,包括毕加索、珍·古德(Jane Goodall)和朗·霍华德(Ron Howard)等,用于在教室里悬挂。现在,全套完整的海报在有些网站上售价达数百美元。


 

 

Albert Einstein
A German-born Swiss-American theoretical physicist, philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time. He is often regarded as the father of modern physics.

艾尔伯特·爱因斯坦Albert Einstein

生于德国的瑞士-美籍理论物理学家、哲学家及作者,被视为有史以来最具影响力、最知名的科学家及知识分子。他经常被提及的身份是现代物理学之父。

 

 

 

Alfred Hitchcock
An English filmmaker and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and psychological thriller genres. He is considered as a master of suspense and horror films.

阿尔弗雷德·希区柯克Alfred Hitchcock

英国电影摄制者及制作人,首创了悬疑及心理惊悚电影流派的许多技术,被视为悬疑、惊悚电影大师。

 

 

Amelia Earhart
An American Aviatrix who made a solo flight across the Atlantic, followed by several solo long-distance record flights in the United States. She was the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross.

 艾米莉亚·埃尔哈特Amelia Earhart

美国女飞行家,曾做横跨大西洋的单人飞行,其后还创下了数次单人长途飞行的美国记录,是第一位被授予杰出飞行十字勋章的女性。

 

 

Ansel Adams
Was an American photographer and environmentalist, best known for his black-and-white photographs of the American West.

安塞尔·亚当斯Ansel Adams

美国摄影师及环保分子,最为知名的是他拍摄的美国西部黑白照片。

 

 

Bill Bernbach
Was a legendary figure in the history of American advertising. He was one of the three founders of Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) and directed ad campaigns such as “Think Small” for Volkswagen Beetle.

比尔·伯恩巴克Bill Bernbach

美国广告史上的传奇人物。DDB三大创始人之一,为大众甲壳虫执导过“想想还是小的好(Think Small)”等广告。

 

 

Bob Dylan
Is an American singer-songwriter and musician. He has been a major figure in popular music for five decades

鲍勃·迪伦Bob Dylan

美国创作歌手,近五十年来流行乐坛的重要人物。

 

 

Buzz Aldrin
On July 20, 1969, he was the second person to set foot on the Moon, following mission commander Neil Armstrong.

巴兹·奥尔德林Buzz Aldrin

1969年7月20日,跟在任务指挥官尼尔·阿姆斯特朗(Neil Armstrong)之后第二个踏上月球的人。

 

 

Charlie Chaplin
Was an English comic actor and film director of the silent film era, and became one of the best-known film stars in the world before the end of the First World War.

查理·卓别林Charlie Chaplin

默片时代的英国喜剧演员、电影导演,成为一战结束前全世界最著名的电影明星之一。

 

 

Eleanor Roosevelt
Was the First Lady of the United Statesfrom 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights.

埃莉诺·罗斯福Eleanor Roosevelt
1933年至1945年的美国第一夫人。支持她丈夫富兰克林·罗斯福的新政,成为公民权益的倡导者。

 

 

Francis Ford Coppola
Is an Italian-American film director, producer and screenwriter. He is primarily known for directing the Godfather films and Apocalypse Now.

弗兰西斯·福特·科波拉Francis Ford Coppola

意裔美国电影导演、制片人及编剧。主要因其执导的《教父》系列电影及《现代启示录》而知名。

 

 

Flik the ant
The main protagonist of the Pixar Studios animated film A Bug’s Life. Flik is a pavement ant with grand ideas on how to improve life, but he is constantly put down by other, more serious ants for his ideas and inventions that do not seem to work. Steve Jobs is also the CEO of Pixar, that’s probably why they used this image.

蚂蚁飞力Flik the ant

皮克斯工作室动画电影《虫虫危机》的主角。飞力是一只在改进生活方面具有伟大想法的铺道蚁,但它那些似乎不起作用的想法和发明总是遭到其他更为“庄重严肃”的蚂蚁们的贬低和打击。乔布斯同时是皮克斯的CEO,这也许是他们选用蚂蚁飞力形象的原因。

 

 

Frank Capra
was a Sicilian-born American film director and a creative force behind a number of films of the 1930s and 1940s.

弗兰克·卡普拉Frank Capra

生于西西里的美国电影导演,20世纪三四十年代大量电影的幕后创新力量。

 

 

Jackie Robinson
was the first African American Major League Baseball (MLB) player of the modern era.

杰基鲁滨逊Jackie Robinson

现代第一位美国职棒大联盟的非洲球员。

 

 

Jane Goodall

Is a British primatologist, ethologist, anthropologist, and UN Messenger of Peace. She is well-known for her 45-year study of chimpanzee social and family interactions in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania, and for founding the Jane Goodall Institute.

珍古德Jane Goodall

英国灵长类动物学家、生态学家、人类学家,联合国和平使者。因其在坦桑尼亚冈贝河国家公园对黑猩猩的社会和家庭关系长达45年的研究及创立珍古德研究所而著名。

 

 

Jim Henson & Kermit
Was one of the most widely known puppeteers in American history and was the creator of The Muppets. On this image he is posing together with Kermit his most famous Muppet creation, first introduced in 1955. Kermit is the main protagonist of many Muppet projects, most notably as the host of The Muppet Show.

吉姆·汉森与科密特Jim Henson & Kermit

美国历史上最著名的木偶大师之一,The Muppets品牌的创建者。在这张海报上,他与他最著名的布偶作品——最早出现于1955年的青蛙科密特一起出现。科密特是许多木偶剧的主角,其中最著名的是《大青蛙布偶秀》。

 

 

Jimi Hendrix
Was an American guitarist, singer and songwriter. He is often considered to be the greatest electric guitarist in the history of rock music.

吉米·亨德里克斯Jimi Hendrix

美国吉他手、歌手、创作者。常被视为摇滚乐史上最伟大的电子吉他手。

 

 

Joan Baez
An American folk singer, songwriter and activist. Baez has a distinctive vocal style, with a strong vibrato, and her recordings have included topical songs and material dealing with social issues.

琼·贝兹Joan Baez

美国民谣创作歌手、活动家。贝兹声线独特,颤音强烈,她的唱片中包括热门歌曲及以社会问题为素材的歌曲。

 

 

John Huston
Was an American filmmaker, screenwriter and actor.

约翰·休斯顿John huston

美国电影制作人、编剧及演员。

 

 

John Lenon & Yoko Ono
The famous Beatle John Lenon and his wife Yoko Ono Together invented a form of peace protest by staying in bed while being filmed and interviewed.

约翰·列侬&大野洋子John Lenon & Yoko Ono

著名的披头士约翰·列侬与他的妻子大野洋子一起发明了一种和平抗议的方法:当被拍摄和采访的时候,呆在床上。

 

 

Mahatma Ghandi
Was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He was one of the gentlest of men, a devout and almost mystical Hindu, but he had an iron core of determination. Nothing could change his convictions.

圣雄甘地Mahatma Ghandi

印度独立运动时期卓越的政治及精神领袖,最温和的人,虔诚甚至神秘的印度人,但他以钢铁般的决心为核,他的信念无人能改变。

 

 

Maria Callas
An American-born Greek soprano and one of the most renowned opera singers of the 20th century.

玛丽亚·卡拉斯Maria Callas

出生于美国的希腊女高音,20世纪世界最知名的歌剧歌手之一。

 

 

Martha Graham
An American dancer choreographer regarded as one of the foremost pioneers of modern dance, whose influence on dance can be compared to the influence Stravinsky had on music, Picasso had on the visual arts, or Frank Lloyd Wright had on architecture.

玛莎·葛兰姆Martha Graham

美国编舞及演出者,被视为现代舞最重要的先锋,其对舞蹈的影响力堪比斯特拉文斯基对音乐的影响、毕加索对视觉艺术的影响,或者弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特对建筑的影响。

 

 

 

Miles Davis
Was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.
Widely considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, Miles Davis was, with his musical groups, at the forefront of almost every major development in jazz from World War II to the 1990s.

迈尔斯·戴维斯Miles Davis

美国爵士乐小号手、乐队指挥及作曲家,被视为20世纪最具影响力的音乐家之一。自二战起至20世纪90年代,迈尔斯·戴维斯与他的乐团,几乎处于爵士乐每一次重要发展的前沿。

 

 

Muhamed Ali
An American boxer and three-time World Heavyweight Champion, who is widely considered one of the greatest heavyweight championship boxers of all time.

穆罕默德·阿里Muhamed Ali

美国拳击手,三届世界重量级冠军,被视为史上最伟大的重量级冠军之一。

 

 

Nelson Mandela
Served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, the first South-African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist.

纳尔逊·曼德拉Nelson Mandela

1994至1999年的南非总统,第一位由全民代表选举出的南非总统。总统生涯以前,曼德拉是一位反种族隔离活动家。

 

 

Pablo Picasso
Was a Spanish painter, draughtsman, and sculptor. He is best known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles embodied in his work.

巴勃罗·毕加索Pablo Picasso

西班牙画家、绘图师和雕塑家。最为知名的是作为立体派绘画运动的联合发起者,以及作品中体现的多样风格。

 

 

Paul Rand
An American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs, including the logos for IBM, UPS, Westinghouse, ABC, and Steve Jobs’ NeXT.

保罗·兰德Paul Rand

美国平面设计师,最知名的是其公司LOGO设计,包括IBM、UPS、西屋公司、ABC以及史蒂夫·乔布斯的NeXT。

 

 

Ted Turner
An American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the cable news network CNN, the first dedicated 24-hour cable news channel.

特德·特纳Ted Turner

美国媒体大亨和慈善家。作为商人,他是有线新闻网络CNN的创始人,首个提供24小时有线新闻的频道。

 

 

Thomas Edison
An American inventor, scientist and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electriclight bulb.

托马斯·爱迪生Thomas Edison
美国发明家、科学家和商人,发明了极大影响整个世界的许多设备,包括留声机、摄像机和持久耐用的电灯泡。

 

 

 

 

 

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